Conservation of Plants and Animals Class 8 Notes
Extinction is when a species is completely wiped out from the Earth.
Once the last living individual of a species dies, the species is said to be extinct.
Deforestation is the destruction of forests by cutting down trees.
Deforestation leads to habitat loss for many animals.
Causes of Deforestation
Deforestation can occur due to one of the following reasons:
Procuring land for cultivation.
Building houses and factories.
Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
Natural causes such as forest fires and severe drought can also cause deforestation.
Consequences of Deforestation
Deforestation increases the temperature and pollution level on the earth.
It increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
It also reduces the level of groundwater.
Drought is the lack of water in an area. Droughts can happen due to a lack of rainfall.
The formation of a desert by erosion of vegetation due to harsh weather is called desertification.
Human activities like deforestation and improper irrigation are also responsible for desertification of terrains.
Global warming is the change of climate on a global level.
Usually, average temperature increases, leading to the melting of ice caps in the poles.
Excessive pollution and deforestation cause global warming.
A species is a group of individuals that can breed and successfully produce fertile offspring.
Recycling of Paper
The paper industry is a leading cause of deforestation since they need wood pulp.
Recycling paper can help in reducing the consumption of wood pulp by the paper industry.
Reforestation is restocking the destroyed forests by planting new trees.
Conservation of forest and wildlife
Due to the threat from mankind’s indulgence, it is important for us to conserve the forest and its wildlife.
Wildlife is important for us to maintain balance in nature.
A wildlife sanctuary is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching.
Flora and fauna
The plants and animals found in a particular area are termed flora and fauna of that area, respectively.
A national park is a park that is used for biodiversity conservation.
They are developed and maintained by the Union Government.
Biosphere and Biodiversity
The biosphere is the part of the earth in which living organisms exist or which supports life.
Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment.
Endemic species are those species of plants and animals which are found exclusively in a particular area.
Biosphere reserves are areas that are protected from human intervention.
These areas help in the conservation of endangered species.
Project Tiger was launched by the government to protect and conserve the dwindling tiger population in the country.
Several Natural parks have been associated with the project tiger initiative.
Animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as endangered animals.
An ecosystem is sum total of all the plants, animals and microorganisms in an area along with non-living components such as climate, soil, river deltas, etc.
Red Data Book
Red Data Book is the source book which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants.
Migration is the periodic movement of animals from one place to another.
It is usually done for breeding and to escape harsh climates.
Migration is common in birds and fish.
Read More: Heat | Class 7 Notes | Science | Chapter 4
1. Fill in the blanks. (a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a _________. (b) Species found only in a particular area are known as _______. (c) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of __________ changes.
(a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a sanctuary.
(b) Species found only in a particular area are known as endemic.
(c) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of climatic changes.
2. Differentiate between the following. (a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve (b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary (c) Endangered and extinct species (d) Flora and fauna
(a) Wildlife Sanctuary and Biosphere Reserve:
- Wildlife Sanctuary: Protected area for animals, preventing hunting. Example: Jim Corbett National Park.
- Biosphere Reserve: Conserves various life forms like plants and animals. Example: Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
(b) Zoo and Wildlife Sanctuary:
- Zoo: Shows animals to the public in artificial spaces.
- Wildlife Sanctuary: Protects animals in their natural habitats.
(c) Endangered and Extinct Species:
- Endangered Species: Animals at risk of disappearing, like the Bengal tiger.
- Extinct Species: Animals that no longer exist, like the passenger pigeon.
(d) Flora and Fauna:
- Flora: Plant life from a place, such as spurge and hogweed.
- Fauna: Animal life from a place, like langurs and tigers.
3. Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following. (a) Wild animals (b) Environment (c) Villages (Rural areas) (d) Cities (Urban areas) (e) Earth (f) The next generation
(a) Effects of Deforestation on Wild Animals:
Deforestation removes plant life, disrupting animal habitats. Animals lose their homes, leading to potential extinction.
(b) Effects of Deforestation on the Environment:
Deforestation increases CO2 in the atmosphere, causing global warming. This disrupts the water cycle, altering rainfall patterns and causing droughts and floods.
(c) Effects of Deforestation on Villages:
Without plant roots, soil erodes easily, decreasing fertility. Fertile land turns into deserts, impacting agriculture.
(d) Effects of Deforestation on Cities:
Deforestation raises flood and drought risks in cities. Increased CO2 levels contribute to global warming, disrupting the water cycle.
(e) Effects of Deforestation on Earth:
Deforestation intensifies desertification, droughts, and floods. Elevated CO2 levels lead to global warming, while disrupted water cycles and natural calamities increase.
(f) Effects of Deforestation on the Next Generation:
Deforestation triggers soil erosion, global warming, desertification, and more. These issues will affect future generations profoundly.
4. What will happen if (a) we go on cutting trees (b) the habitat of an animal is disturbed (c) the top layer of soil is exposed
(a) If we go on cutting trees:
Continued tree cutting destroys animal habitats, reducing biodiversity. This contributes to global warming, altering the water cycle, causing droughts, floods, and risks of erosion, desertification, and the greenhouse effect.
(b) If the habitat of an animal is disturbed:
Disturbing an animal's habitat disrupts its access to essential resources like food, water, and shelter. This forces animals to move, exposes them to dangers, and may lead to their demise.
(c) If the top layer of the soil is removed:
Removing the topsoil exposes less fertile layers underneath. With reduced humus, soil erosion accelerates, leading to barren and infertile land over time.
5. Answer in brief. (a) Why should we conserve biodiversity? (b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why? (c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How? (d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation? (e) What is Red Data Book? (f) What do you understand by the term migration?
(a) Why should we conserve biodiversity?
Biodiversity, encompassing plants, animals, and microorganisms, maintains a delicate balance in nature. The interdependence of life forms means harming one affects others. Conservation ensures a stable ecosystem and sustains life.
(b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
Protected forests are often shared with human populations who rely on forest resources. This proximity creates threats to wildlife as human activities can lead to poaching and habitat degradation.
(c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?
Tribals rely on forests for their daily needs, obtaining food and resources for survival from the forest ecosystem.
(d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
- Urban expansion
- Agricultural clearing
- Firewood extraction
- Soil erosion
- Biodiversity loss
- Global warming
- Disrupted water cycle
(e) What is Red Data Book?
The Red Data Book is a global record maintained by IUCN, listing endangered plant and animal species on the brink of extinction, serving as a conservation reference.
(f) What do you understand by the term migration?
Migration refers to the regular movement of organisms or groups from their natural habitats to another location, often driven by seasonal changes or breeding requirements.
6. In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are continually being cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a brief report.
Report: Should Trees be Cut for Development Projects?
Cutting down trees to meet the demands of industrialization and urbanization raises significant concerns. While development is crucial, it should not come at the cost of our environment and its delicate balance. Forests harbor diverse life forms and provide essential services that benefit humans and the planet.
Forests play a vital role in maintaining air quality by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen through photosynthesis. This natural process helps combat greenhouse gases and global warming. Moreover, trees' root systems prevent soil erosion, and their presence can mitigate the impact of natural disasters like floods and droughts.
Large-scale deforestation, driven by human demands, triggers a cascade of problems, including soil erosion, the greenhouse effect, global warming, floods, and droughts. These issues have far-reaching consequences on ecosystems, biodiversity, and even human societies.
Ultimately, the destruction of trees disrupts the balance of nature. While development is necessary, it should be pursued through sustainable practices that minimize the impact on the environment. Striking a balance between progress and ecological preservation is crucial for the well-being of current and future generations. It is imperative to prioritize conservation efforts and responsible land use planning to ensure a harmonious coexistence between development and nature.
7. How can you contribute to the maintenance of the green wealth of your locality? Make a list of actions to be taken by you.
I can contribute to the green wealth of my locality by:
- Planting Trees: Actively planting new trees to increase the green cover.
- Spreading Awareness: Educating my community about the significance of trees and plants in our ecosystem.
- Organizing Events: Arranging regular events to encourage tree planting and care.
- Involving Others: Motivating my neighbors to participate and join the initiative.
- Engaging Youth: Focusing on educating children and youth about environmental importance.
- Regular Maintenance: Ensuring existing trees are watered and well taken care of.
By taking these actions, I aim to contribute towards preserving and enhancing the green wealth of our locality.
Deforestation involves clearing trees and plants for industries, farming, and other needs. Plants perform photosynthesis, absorbing CO2 from the air. When plants are removed, CO2 levels rise, trapping heat and causing global warming. This warmer environment disrupts the water cycle, changing rainfall patterns. The disturbance cascades, eventually leading to droughts due to altered rainfall.
Saving paper is crucial because producing paper requires cutting down trees. Trees contribute to ecological balance. To prevent the negative effects of tree loss on nature and dependent organisms, paper conservation is essential.
Ways to save paper:
- Recycling: Collect and recycle used paper.
- Double-Sided Use: Utilize both sides of paper for writing.
- Awareness: Educate children and youth about paper's significance.
- Conscious Use: Be mindful of paper consumption and use it efficiently.