Fibre to Fabric
Fibres from Plants
Plant fibres are essential materials made from cellulose found in plants. These fibres are commonly used to create paper and cloth, and they can be long and shiny when prepared correctly. Some well-known plant fibres are cotton, jute, flax, and hemp.
Jute is obtained solely from the stem of jute plants, growing in regions with alluvial soil found in the Ganga and Brahmaputra river deltas. It is a soft, shiny, and long fibre with a silky texture.
Basic of Fabric
Fibres are the finer parts of threads, resembling thread-like structures that can be spun into ropes, clothes, and strings. Fabrics are made from fibres, which are sourced either from natural materials like cotton or artificial ones like rayon, nylon, and polyester.
Fibre to Yarn to Fabric
Fabrics are made up of thin strands called yarn, which, in turn, consist of even thinner strands known as fibres.
Cotton and Its Processing
Cotton comes from cotton bolls, directly obtained from the surface of cotton seeds. It thrives in warm climates and black clayey soil. Processing cotton involves steps like ginning, spinning, weaving, and knitting.
Wool is a natural animal fibre obtained from sheep, goats, yak, camel, and others. It is derived from the hair that covers their bodies and is used to make various fabrics, such as woollen clothes, carpets, and sweaters.
Rearing and Breeding of Sheep for Wool
Sheep are reared for their useful products, and selective breeding is done to obtain special characteristics in their offspring, like soft under hair for wool production.
Processing Fibres into Wool
Sheep’s fleece has two types of fibres: coarse beard hair and fine soft under-hair near the skin. The process of making fibre into wool includes shearing, scouring, sorting, dyeing, straightening, rolling, and combing.
Occupational Hazards of Fibre Production
Workers involved in fibre production might get infected by a bacterium called anthrax, causing a fatal blood disease known as sorter’s disease.
Silk is a natural protein fibre obtained from silkworms and used for textiles. Different types of silk come from various silkworms, like Kosa, tassar, mooga, etc. The process of sericulture involves rearing silkworms at appropriate conditions to obtain silk threads from cocoons.
Processing Silk Obtained from Cocoons
Silk threads are obtained by reeling the silk from the cocoon, followed by spinning the fibres into threads. These threads are then woven into desired clothes.
Natural Fibres vs. Synthetic Fibres
Natural fibres are obtained from plants (e.g., cotton) or animals (e.g., wool and silk), while synthetic fibres are man-made using chemical substances (e.g., polyester, nylon, acrylic). Synthetic fibres tend to be more durable compared to natural fibres.
Some Indian breeds of sheep which provide wool Name of a breed of sheep Quality of wool Name of the state where found Lohi Good quality wool Rajasthan, Punjab Rampur bushier Brown fleece Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh Nali Carpet wool Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab Bakharwal For woollen shawls Jammu and Kashmir Marwari Coarse Wool Gujarat Patanwadi For hosiery Gujarat.
|Breed of Sheep||Quality of Wool||State Where Found|
|Lohi||Good quality wool||Rajasthan, Punjab|
|Rampur Bushier||Brown fleece||Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh|
|Nali||Carpet wool||Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab|
|Bakharwal||For woollen shawls||Jammu and Kashmir|
You must be familiar with the following nursery rhymes: (i) ‘Baa baa black sheep, have you any Wool.’ (ii) ‘Mary had a little lamb, whose fleece was white as snow.’ Answer the following: (a) Which parts of the black sheep have wool? (b) What is meant by the white fleece of the lamb?
(a)The wool is present on the sheep's body. So, the parts of the black sheep that have wool are its body.
(b) Fleece was white as snow,' the term "fleece" refers to the wool of the lamb. It means that the lamb's body is covered with soft and white wool.
The silkworm is (a) a caterpillar (b) a larva. Choose the correct option. (i) (a) (ii) (b) (iii) both (a) and (b) (iv) neither (a) nor (b)
Ans. (iii) both (a) and (b).
Ans. (iv) Woolly dog
(i) Rearing: Rearing refers to the process of breeding, feeding, and providing medical care to animals or insects like sheep, silkworms, etc., to obtain useful products from them.
(ii) Shearing: Shearing is the process of removing the fleece or wool from sheep or other wool-yielding animals by cutting their hair close to the skin.
(iii) Sericulture: Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms under controlled conditions to obtain raw silk, which involves the process of obtaining silk threads from the cocoons spun by the silkworms.
Given below is a sequence of steps in the processing of wool. Which are the missing steps? Add them. Shearing, ________ , sorting,________, __________
Shearing, scouring, sorting, picking out of burrs, colouring, rolling
Out of the following, which are the two terms related to silk production? Sericulture, floriculture, moriculture, apiculture and silviculture. Hints: (i) Silk production involves cultivation of mulberry leaves and rearing silkworms. (ii) Scientific name of mulberry is Morus alba.
(i) Sericulture (ii) Moriculture